Section 4 Review

Section 4- What Do The Signs Tell You?

Objective: The student will describe what a driver's lane position communicates about the driver intention. The student will identify three possible causes of erratic driving. The student will explain various tactics for safely sharing the road with other vehicles and pedestrians. The student will list three categories of road sign and identify their characteristic shapes and colors and recognize 5 unique signs by shape. The student will describe 6 different traffic signal lights. The student will recognize standard lane markings.

In this section, we will look at the many things in the driving environment that can be learned simply by reading the signs. There are more signs to be seen and read than just posted street signs. These signs include: how another driver is driving, traffic control devices, lane markings, and what a parked car might be telling you.

These are all signs that impart vital information. Good drivers learn to see, read, and interpret how all of these signs affect their intended path of travel. To begin this section, we will first examine what your actions communicate to other drivers.

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What does your Driving Say

Objective: The student will describe how lane position communicates driver intention. The student will define the three second following distance rule and explain how it controls space to the front of the vehicle. The student will identify three possible causes of erratic driving. The student will explain tactics for safely sharing the road with other vehicles and pedestrians.

Making Effective Lane Position Choices

Your lane position says a lot about your intentions on the road. To inform other drivers that you have no intention of changing lanes, position your car in the center of your lane. This will also give you the most distance between your vehicle and others.

Positioning your vehicle in the left-most position of your lane allows other drivers to predict that you may be preparing for a lane change or turn. Driving in this area also allows more space between your vehicle and parked cars. Positioning your vehicle to the right of your lane indicates a lane change to the right or a right turn.

When proceeding through an intersection chose the centermost lane. This allows vehicles that will be turning right or left to correctly position themselves. When driving on a highway with two-lanes in your direction of travel, slower moving traffic should drive in the right lane. The left lane is considered a passing lane and generally travels faster than the right lane.

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Controlling Space to the Front

Aggressive visual searches are important to better prepare yourself for unexpected hazards. An adequate sight path is only available when you are correctly positioned within your lane. We recommend that you use the three second rule as your basic following distance. At speeds greater than 40 mph, more time is needed to ensure a proper stop. A good rule of thumb at higher speeds is one second per every ten miles of travel.

For example, if you are traveling 60 mph, you should have at least 6 seconds before the car in front of you. When you reach a vehicle ahead of you that is traveling slower than you, you may change lanes to pass, if available. If not, reduce your speed and increase your following distance.

Although the left lane is generally considered the "fast lane" or the "passing lane," some drivers will speed in all lanes. Be aware of vehicles approaching too fast behind you and when changing lanes. We will discuss vehicle space maintenance in depth later.

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Stay Alert to Stay Alive

Although the road may be clear, you must constantly search. It is recommended that a driver search 20-30 seconds in the direction of planned travel and 12-15 seconds to the left or right of the vehicle. New drivers often make the mistake of letting their guard down when the roadway is clear. Debris from wind, animals, and speeding vehicles are unexpected hazards that must always be accounted for.

When a hazard does present itself, act accordingly. If a lane change can be safely made, make it. If not, reduce your speed. If you do see an obstacle in front of you, while it is still 12-15 seconds ahead, change lanes to avoid it.

If you can not change lanes safely, reduce your speed and check the vehicles behind you. If they do not appear to be slowing, tap your brakes to catch their attention. If possible, drive over the obstacle with your vehicle centered on it to avoid damage to your tires. In any situation with obstacles, practice "Smart Braking."

Texas Topic - Cooperating with Other Users. The student will be able to describe responsibilities of sharing the roadway with other users.

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Impaired Drivers

What do the signs from other drivers tell us? Note the driver's lane position, but watch for unexpected maneuvers. If a car is weaving, moving erratically, or the driver has the window down in freezing weather, what do these signs say? It could be the driver has had too much alcohol or not enough rest.

Whatever the driver's condition, he probably shouldn't be driving. Give him plenty of room, and stay clear. The best course of action is for your student to allow the car to move ahead. (In this driver's condition, it is better to have him in front of you than behind you).

Driving is difficult enough to master if not all of your senses are in peak condition. As a new driver, you need to be aware that other drivers may not be at the same level of health. These drivers require special consideration, care, and courtesy. The following is sample of some common disabilities and some strategies for overcoming them and qualifying for a driver license:

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Impaired Drivers (Continued)

Common disabilities and some strategies for overcoming them and qualifying for a driver license:

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Impaired Drivers (Continued)

Some health conditions cannot be classified as disease or disability. Rather, they slowly deteriorate the individual's health. These situations too require extra care and caution. They include:

When you encounter a driver that you think may be impaired, your best course of action is to give plenty of room to the driver, be courteous, and observe the vehicle for sudden changes.

Sleep deprivation

Sleep deprivation is not a disease or chronic illness, yet it affects drivers as dramatically as substance abuse. The tired driver is not a safe driver. Denver news reported that sleep deprivation might be as big a problem as drinking and driving. It is, however, under reported. It is important to get proper sleep before a long drive and take frequent rests (every 90 minutes to two hours). Additionally, you should not rely on caffeine or other drug remedies to keep you awake when you are tired. While they may keep you from sleeping, they will not refresh the mind and body like only sleep can.

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Impaired Drivers (Continued)

Sleep deprivation

Circadian rhythms refer to your body's sleep cycle. You should plan your driving when you are normally awake and not drive around the time that you normally go to bed. Be aware that jet lag will throw you off of your normal schedule. A sleep plan must be made to compensate for the time displacement.

The most dangerous times to drive are generally 12 am to 5 am and 1 pm to 3 pm because your body is generally more ready to sleep at these times.

Check Your Backside

If mirrors are properly used, a driver should not be surprised when a vehicle passes. What are the signs? If a driver behind you is seen weaving in and out of traffic, what is the correct prediction when he gets near? That's right; he'll whiz right by. Be ready for these other drivers and, when possible, move aside and let the car pass.

Compensating for Distracted Drivers

What about the driver who is having his breakfast or applying her makeup while driving? This is another driver who should be avoided. When drivers are clutching a map, reading, talking on a cell phone, or eating while driving, watch them. Do not let their lack of attention become your problem. Give such drivers a lot of room. They are dangerous because their attention is not 100% focused on their driving.

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Parked Cars

What are the signs that tell us a parked car is ready to move into our path of travel (Figure on the right)? Can you name them?

In a parking lot, when reverse lights are on, this is an indication that the vehicle will probably be backing out. However, do not let this be the only clue. Sometimes reverse lights do not work. Get in the habit of looking at the cars nearest yours before getting in your vehicle. You should notice which cars have drivers in them. Is the exhaust visible, indicating the car is running? You should also notice where pedestrians are located. Take a quick glance around the area before getting in the car to help identify potential hazards.


We must emphasize that drivers must always be alert for pedestrians; especially watch for children. If a ball bounces into the road, what does this mean? It most likely means that a child will run into the road behind it. In fact, whenever small children are near the roadway, consider it a danger.

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Pedestrians (Continued)

Slow down and keep your eyes on them as much as possible. Sometimes you may not see small children that are near the road way. When you approach schools and parks, show extra caution just as you would if you saw a child near the road.

A driver must expect the unexpected. Animals present the same kind of hazard to drivers. Slow down and watch them. The driver should practice "smart braking"-place his foot just over the brake pedal and be ready to stop (Figure on the right).

Other pedestrians who require greater attention are the elderly (Figure below). As we get older, our reaction time slows considerably. Sight and hearing also diminish. Drivers should be patient and courteous.

On city streets, your driver must slow down and be ready to brake. Remember, while pedestrians do not always have the right of way, you must never hit them whether or not they are in a crosswalk.

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More and more streets have bike lanes. When driving on a street with a bike lane, give the bicyclist the same courtesy and care you would give a pedestrian; emphasize alertness and allow plenty of room. Legally, the bicyclist has the same rights and responsibilities as any other driver. The cyclist is required to ride on the road (not the sidewalk) and should obey all signs and signals.

On roadways where the speed limit exceeds 50 mph, if bicycles are permitted, the cyclist must ride on the shoulder. Bicyclists should not ride side by side, unnecessarily blocking the roadway, but if they do, do not retaliate with harsh language, threats, or dangerous actions; car-bicycle collisions are often fatal for the bicyclist.

Most car-bicycle collisions occur when a motorist is turning left in front of oncoming bicycle traffic. Other common causes of collisions between a car and bicycle include a motorist turning right across bicycle traffic and motorists failing to yield right-of-way to bicycle cross traffic at a stop sign. The motorist bears the responsibility to see all oncoming traffic at an intersection; including motor vehicles, cyclists, and pedestrians.

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Bicycles (Continued)

When following a cyclist, slow down as you approach and leave plenty of space between your vehicle and the cyclist. Bicycles stop and maneuver more quickly than cars and trucks. If the cyclist has to swerve to avoid a hazard, you must be able to compensate for the cyclists sudden change. Leaving extra space between a motor vehicle and a two-wheeled vehicle is the best way to compensate.

Trucks and Buses

Busses and large trucks, and construction vehicles are commercial vehicles. These vehicles and drivers have been hired to move people or goods from one place to another safely. The drivers are specially trained and licensed to operate their vehicle. Very often, long routes and tight deadlines lead to sleep deprivation for commercial vehicle operators. Drivers of non-commercial (or passenger) vehicles should exercise courtesy and give extra space.

Large Vehicles need extra space for different reasons than two wheeled vehicles. Large vehicles obstruct the view of drivers who follow too closely. A tractor-trailer may create a strong tailwind that can push a smaller vehicle out of its lane if the smaller vehicle is too close.

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Trucks and Buses (Continued)

A prudent driver should increase the following distance behind a large truck or bus and remain far enough back to see beyond the larger vehicle. The greater mass of these commercial vehicles creates a greater inertia that must be overcome to accelerate and greater momentum to overcome when braking.

Safe drivers will never cut closely in front of a large vehicle or obstruct the path of one going downhill. Realize that the commercially licensed driver will take every reasonable step possible to be safe, but one can not change the laws of physics and, therefore, should apply caution to protect oneself around large vehicles.

The familiar yellow school bus should be treated with caution and respect. One should be alert for pedestrians rushing to catch the bus and discharged passengers hurrying across the street. If the bus is loading or unloading passengers, the driver will activate flashing red lights or stop signs. Except on divided highways, when a school bus's flashing red lights or stop signs are activated, vehicles on both sides of the road must stop. The driver will watch to make sure all children cross the street safely then deactivate the stop signals. Once the signals are deactivated, vehicles on both sides of the road may resume travel.

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Trucks and Buses (Continued)

Look at the figure on the right. What do you think is the most dangerous thing about that bus? What does the driver see? The most dangerous thing is that it obscures your driver's view.

When passing a stopped bus or truck, expect someone to step from behind it. Cars pulling out from behind a stopped bus are also a danger. Not looking in the right place and interpreting the signs while passing a stopped bus or truck might cause an otherwise avoidable collision.

Sport Utility Vehicles and Sport Utility Trucks

Sports Utility Vehicles (SUV or SUT for Sport Utility Trucks) have gained tremendous popularity in America over the past 10 years. A sport utility truck is simply an SUV with an open truck bed. They tend to be larger and sit higher than other vehicles; giving the driver an advantageous view of the road. The heavy, sturdy construction gives the occupants added protection in a collision; however, they also have larger motors and poor gas mileage. Very often, these vehicles have a four-wheel drive transmission and the drivers of such vehicles assume that this affords them some measure of safety when driving aggressively. Quite the contrary, SUVs have a higher center of gravity and are susceptible to rollovers when making sharp turns at high speeds.

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By definition, a convoy is, "A group, as of ships or motor vehicles, traveling together with a protective escort or for safety or convenience." Sometimes, commercial vehicles will convoy together to a common destination. One may also see military vehicles traveling in a convoy.

A true convoy will have Department of Transportation markings on each vehicle and will also have escort vehicles. A convoy will also drive slower than the speed limit so the drivers can stay together. It is improper to insert oneself between vehicles of a convoy and cause them to separate.

A funeral procession is a special kind of convoy with legal rights and responsibilities in most states. A funeral procession is defined by the National Funeral Directors Association as two or more vehicles accompanying the remains of a deceased person, in the daylight hours, including a funeral lead or escort vehicle. Non-law enforcement funeral escort vehicles are equipped with at least one rotating amber lamp visible from at least 500 feet. A law enforcement funeral escort vehicle may have a red, blue, or amber lamp.

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Convoys (Continued)

Vehicles in a funeral procession will follow one another as closely as is practical and safe; funeral processions are not legally bound to a two or three second following distance. These vehicles will also drive with head and tail lights illuminated. The first and last vehicles will display activated hazard lights.

It is important for a driver to recognize a funeral procession because funeral processions operate under different right of way rules. Generally speaking, the funeral procession has the right of way.

When the funeral escort vehicle legally enters an intersection, the rest of the procession will follow the escort vehicle without regard to traffic signs and signals provided the operators of individual vehicles exercise reasonable care toward any other vehicle or pedestrian on the roadway. Drivers in a funeral procession do have to yield right of way to emergency vehicles and they must obey directions given by police officers.

Drivers who are not part of a funeral procession must not drive between vehicles in a funeral procession when the procession is moving unless authorized to do so by law enforcement.

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Convoys (Continued)

Drivers also are not allowed to join the procession just to take advantage of the right of way. One should not pass to the right of a funeral procession on a multiple lane highway unless the procession is in the far left lane. Drivers must yield right of way to a moving funeral procession at intersections regardless of the traffic signs or signals.

Slow Moving Vehicles

Farm tractors, horse drawn carriages, construction vehicles and other slow moving vehicles require other drivers to reduce speed and follow at a safe distance (you should be noticing a trend). Often, slow moving vehicles have a triangular reflective sign on the back to make other drivers aware of them early on. Most slow moving vehicles are only on the road for a short time. Carefully consider the drivers actions to determine if a passing maneuver is necessary; a tractor approaching the entrance to a farm is likely to turn off the road. If passing is necessary, one should not pass until it is legal and safe to do so. When approaching a slow moving vehicle in the opposite lane of travel, be alert for oncoming vehicles in one's own path as they try to pass the slow vehicle.

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Discussion questions - Jot down answers to the following questions and keep these notes for your records:

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Traffic Control Devices

Texas Topic - Traffic Control Devices. The student will recognize, understand and describe the laws and procedures related to roadway signs, signals and marking.

Objective: The student will identify three categories of road signs and their common shapes and colors. The student will identify 5 unique signs by shape.

In 2010, more than 5 times as many traffic accidents occurred at intersections with control devices than without. One explanation for this is false assumptions. Many drivers assume that because there is a traffic control device, i.e., traffic light, stop sign, one-way street sign, etc., intersecting traffic will yield.

We all know a green traffic light means to proceed, and a red traffic light means to stop. However, many things can affect whether these images will register on our brain: drugs or alcohol, stress, over-the-counter medication, fatigue, or just about any other distraction there may be. Even our mood can affect whether we accurately respond to traffic signals. Get your student into the habit of making a quick glance left and right before traveling through an intersection, even when the light is green. Do not let your teen race the car into the intersection on the green light.

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Traffic Control Devices (Continued)

Learn to recognize a "stale" green light. As you approach an intersection controlled by traffic lights, pay attention to the light. If it has been green for a minute or two; realize that the light is about to turn yellow.

Many drivers try to speed up and "beat the light" as they approach an intersection. This results in running red lights and many serious collisions. Many lights cycle through the yellow phase for only a few seconds. By anticipating the changing light and slowing down, you can prevent serious collisions.

Traffic Signs

Parents, have your driver study the signs listed. These are samples from the three categories of signs. Note the colors and shapes and how they associate with each category. These identifiers can tell you about upcoming driving conditions from great distances, even before you can actually read the sign. The three categories are:

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Traffic Signs (Continued)

Some signs are distinct in their shape. Signs for stop, yield, school zone, railroad crossing, no passing, and highway identifiers have unique shapes that make them easily identifiable from a distance. The following section gives you a comprehensive look at U.S. signs and the information you may see on them.

Obey the Literal Interpretation of Everyday Laws:

Why stop completely at Stop Signs? Failure to stop at a stop sign can (and will) result in a traffic violation- IT IS AGAINST THE LAW.

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Obey the Literal Interpretation of Everyday Laws (Continued):

Pedestrians and other vehicles on the road expect you to stop at stop signs. It is imperative to interpret and obey the literal meaning of what a stop sign is telling you to do. It is plain and simple - Stop means Stop.Have you ever told someone to stop, but really meant "slow down"? Probably not.

What does yield really mean? To Yield, is to give. To Yield means to give the right of way to the road you are turning on or accessing to existing traffic on that road, whether you have to stop or slow down. A complete stop may not always be necessary.

Regulatory Signs

Regulatory signs tell you of laws and regulations that apply at a specific location. They are black or red on a white backgroundFailure to obey these signs is a traffic violation. Examples of regulatory signs include SPEED LIMIT, STOP, YIELD, WRONG WAY /DO NOT ENTER, ONE WAY, lane control signs, prohibited signs, and passing signs. The following signs provide examples of the most common you will encounter as you drive.

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Regulatory Signs (Continued)

These signs are not suggestions; they're mandatory and legally enforceable.





















  • Enter Only.











Take care if you choose to pass another vehicle



Slower traffic must stay in the right lane.



These signs apply to trucks only.



Divided Highway T-intersection



Divided Highway 4-leg Intersection


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Warning Signs

Warning signs are yellow with black symbols and most are diamond shaped. They warn you to slow down and be prepared to stop if necessary. These signs may warn of intersections, different types of highways, traffic entering your area, curves, etc.

It is important to understand what warning signs are trying to indicate. The following list provides a thorough sample of those signs you will most likely encounter when driving.


































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Warning Signs (Continued)





















































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School Zone Signs

These special signs provide mandatory requirements for speed and caution when you are entering a school area. These signs may be yellow (or fluorescent yellow green) and black, orange and black, or red and white. The new yellow green signs are easier to see in low visibility conditions such as dusk, rain, or fog.










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Road Construction Signs

These signs warn you of temporary conditions that override permanently posted signage. It is important to pay close attention when driving in construction zones for your safety as well as the safety of those working to improve the roadways. Most of the signs are self-explanatory and should be simple to recognize on sight. The following examples provide some of the common signs found in construction zones.

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Informational Signs

Route signs and markers indicate the type of roadway: Interstate, U.S., State or County highway. Other information signs are used to indicate nearby airports, hospitals, restaurants, and gas stations.




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Discussion questions - Jot down answers to the following questions and keep these notes for your records:

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Traffic Signals

Objective: the student will explain the meaning of common traffic signal lights and explain reversible lanes.

Traffic signals control the flow of traffic electronically using lights, symbols, and colors. The color scheme is familiar to almost everyone. Red always means stop, yellow indicates caution, and green tells you it is safe to proceed. There is more to traffic signals than the standard three-panel light. Let's discuss some of the unique signals you might see while driving. The common vertical orientation will always have red at the top, yellow in the middle, and green on the bottom.

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Traffic Signals (Continued)

Some standard traffic lights will be augmented with arrow indicators.

Pedestrians as well as drivers must obey traffic lights. Many intersections are equipped with pedestrian lights. At such intersections, pedestrians should obey the lights and drivers should yield the right of way to the pedestrian. The pedestrian lights may use words or symbols. A sample of the lights is given below.

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Traffic Signals (Continued)

Reversible lanes and lane signals are a feature of many large cities with heavy rush hour traffic. Reversible lanes are painted with double yellow broken lines that must not be crossed accept at designated times. These lanes are controlled by lane signals. The lane signal lights and explanations are demonstrated below:

An example of these lane signals on a typical reversible lane might look like one of these:

The colored arrows are included to help you identify which way traffic should go on each lane.

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Discussion questions - Jot down answers to the following questions and keep these notes for your records:

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Lane Markings

Two Way Traffic Markings

Two Lane Streets

Multi Lane Streets

(1.) A yellow line (solid or broken) tells you that traffic on the other side is moving opposite of the direction you are traveling. A broken yellow line allows cars from either direction to pass by crossing the line.

(2.) A solid line must not be crossed for lane changes but it may be crossed in a left turn into driveway. A broken line next to a solid line indicates that traffic in the lane with the broken line may pass while traffic with the solid yellow line may not pass.

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Lane Markings (Continued)

Two Way Traffic Markings

Two Lane Streets

Multi Lane Streets

(3.) A double solid yellow line should not be crossed except on residential streets to turn into a drive way. Extra caution must be used in these situations since there are no traffic controls protecting the turn.

(4.) A broken white line indicates another lane of traffic traveling in your same direction and may be crossed for passing as long as conditions are safe. Solid white lines on the left side of your lane indicate a left turn lane originating from your direction of travel.

(5.) This is called a "channelized left turn lane" because traffic is channeled into a position for left turns by the lane markings. A solid white line on your right side indicates your right lane boundary. These should not be crossed.

A center lane bordered on both sides by a broken yellow line, then a solid yellow line is a special lane intended only for left turns. These lanes are not intended for use as primary lanes of travel. Vehicles will enter this lane from either direction to make a left turn. Vehicles may also enter the lane on a left turn from a side street, but these vehicles must change to a primary lane before proceeding forward. Notice that the shared left turn lane may be converted to a channelized left turn lane at intersections. In this case, it is improper to make a left turn from a side street into the center lane.

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Lane Markings (Continued)

Three Lane Streets

(6) Shows a three lane street where passing over the yellow line is permitted for the single lane only. The double lane does not have the need or permission to cross the yellow line to pass because passing can be accomplished in double lane over the broken white line.

(7.) Shows a three lane street where no passing is allowed over the yellow lines. Double yellow lines are common on hills and sharp curves. They may also be present in areas that are otherwise prone to traffic collisions, low visibility such as fog, or increased pedestrian traffic.


(8.) Illustrates a roadway where the center lane transitions from a north bound lane to a south bound lane. Traffic in either direction is channeled into one lane to allow use of the center lane by the other direction. The direction of travel may be controlled by the lane markings or, as we learned in the last section, may be controlled by lane signals over a reversible lane.


(9.) Reversible lanes are distinguished by double yellow broken lines on either side. The reversible lane creates an additional lane of travel in the direction of the heaviest traffic flow. When morning rush hour traffic flows heavily into a business district, the reversible lane can add an inbound lane. In the afternoon, when the heaviest traffic is leaving the district, the reversible lane opens for outbound traffic.

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Lane Markings (Continued)

Freeway Entrance and Exit Markings

Freeway, highway, expressway, and thruway are all words to describe a broad roadway designed for high speed traffic. Interstates are highways that connect two or more states. These federal roadways are maintained by the states they lie in but they must comply with federal standards. In the diagrams below, we examine the common entry and exit markings for these specialized roads.

(10.) The first example is a parallel deceleration lane for the exit ramp.

(11.) The second shows a tapered deceleration lane for the exit ramp.

In both cases you should merge to the deceleration lane before reducing speed. The deceleration lane allows you to reduce speed to the posted limit for the exit ramp, normally 25mph.


(12.) The cloverleaf ramp design provides long curved entrance and exit ramps that you are supposed to adjust your speed on. Notice that the space between the ramps is not long enough for acceleration or deceleration. This is a merge lane to allow traffic to transition to and from the highway and the ramps.


(13.) Another common exit is the exit only lane. This lane simply transitions into the exit ramp and the highway continues with one less lane.

In each of these cases, a similar drawing with a reversed traffic flow could be made to illustrate entrance ramps with acceleration lanes.

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Lane Markings (Continued)

The national highway system also provides a special format for naming highways. North / South oriented roadways are named with an odd number. East / West oriented roadways are named with an even number. Even numbered highways have lower numbers the further South they are and higher numbers as they get further North. Odd number highways have lower numbers the further West they are and higher numbers the further East.

High Occupancy Vehicle Lanes

Simply put, HOV lanes are designed for vehicles with two or more occupants. They encourage carpooling which reduces the number of vehicles on the roadway and the consumption of fossil fuels.

(14.) In keeping with previous guidelines, a double white line separating the HOV lane from the other lanes prevents vehicles from entering or exiting the lane at that time.

(15.) A single broken white line indicates that vehicles may enter or exit the lane.

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Lane Markings (Continued)

Intersection Markers

Having examined straight lane markers, let's turn our attention to intersections. Intersections are areas where two or more roads cross. In higher traffic areas, intersections will be controlled by lane markings and signs / signals to direct the traffic flow and prevent collisions.

Some intersections will have no controls or special markings. Other intersections, controlled by stop sign or traffic lights, will very likely have a cross walk for pedestrians to use when they cross the street.

(16.) This illustrates the kinds of painting you can expect regarding pedestrian crossings.

(17.) Another type of intersection is the roundabout or traffic circle. Roundabouts are very common in Europe and are becoming more common here in the United States. Unlike a four way stops, roundabouts keep the traffic moving by requiring that vehicles within the circle continue moving and vehicles entering the circle yield right of way. These traffic circles will always have yield signs and may include crosswalks, yield lines, and splitter islands as indicated in the picture.

(18.) A typical 4 way stop intersection controlled by traffic lights. Notice the solid white stop line preceding the crosswalk. You should stop your vehicle before this line to allow plenty of room for pedestrians. Sometimes, the stop line is so far back, to allow room for the crosswalk, that you can not see oncoming traffic. You must still stop at the stop line for pedestrians. Once you see that no pedestrians are waiting to cross, inch forward until you can see what the traffic situation looks like. You may proceed when it is safe (no oncoming cars) and legal (you have met the requirements of the traffic control device).

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Lane Markings (Continued)

Work Zone Pavement Markings

During times of construction, special temporary markings, barriers and signals may be used to direct traffic around the work. Keep in mind that many states double fines for speeding in a work zone.


(19.) Shows a lane closure on a two lane road using portable traffic control signals.

(20.) A half road closure on a multi-lane high speed highway.

(21.) A lane shift on a freeway.

Other Common Pavement Markings


(22.) Speed hump-A wide, raised area in the road to encourage you to reduce speed.

(23.) Bike lane-bicyclists should stay in this special lane. Motorized vehicles are not allowed.

(24.) Bike detector-this symbol indicates the optimum position for a bicyclist to activate the automated traffic signal.

(25.) Highway rail grade crossing-note the painted rail road crossing symbol preceding the stop line.

(26.) Yield symbol-components of a yield line.

(27.) Yield line-this line precedes a crossing indicating that drivers must yield to crossing traffic.

(28.) Bi-directional 4 lane highway with yield line.

(29.) One-way 3 lane highway with yield line.

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Lane Markings (Continued)

Additional Pavement Markings

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Discussion questions - Jot down answers to the following questions and keep these notes for your records:

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Introducing Reversing

Objective: The student will explain the proper procedure for driving in reverse.

Since an sizeable number of minor accidents happen while reversing, study how to perform this maneuver properly. Review these procedures with your family. You should reverse the car according to the following procedure.

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Gas Mileage Worksheet

Gas mileage is the measure of our cars efficiency burning fuel. It is measured in miles per gallon. The more miles you drive per gallon of gas, the better your fuel efficiency and the less money you will spend on fuel per month. New cars have the gas mileage clearly posted on the sale sticker.

You can determine your gas mileage, and monitor it by using the gas mileage worksheet. Monitor your gas mileage over the next month and record your findings on the chart.

Click here to open and print out your Gas Milleage worksheet.

Extra Credit

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When you get behind the wheel after Section 4, you should focus on each point below and master them before proceeding to the next section:

The Student Driver:

  • Utilizes critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving skills to operate the vehicle and perform basic maneuvers.

  • Pulls to and from the curb without affecting the flow of traffic.

  • Establishes and utilizes a space management system.

  • Enters the roadway both forward and reverse from a private and public driveway.

  • Demonstrates vehicle balance, placement and lane position to manage space and reduce evasive actions while turning or steering, traveling forward at low to average rates of speed and driving in reverse.

  • Estimates, establishes and maintain following distances appropriate to conditions, limitations of the driver, other roadways users including tailgaters or aggressive driving, vehicle, roadway and environmental factors.

  • Makes adjustments to positioning in response to conditions inside and outside the space management areas.

  • Performs proper blind spot, mirror checks and lane changes.

  • Completes right and left turns utilizing proper procedures, land postion and rate of speed.

  • identifies open, closed or changing path of travel and responds appropriately.

  • Accepts or yields right of way based on law, consequences, and conditions.

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Behind the wheel and Supervised Practice:

PARENTS, Print out the Guidelines for Behind-the-Wheel Instruction. This will be used while conducting the drivers evaluation on the student.

Please print out and use The Driver Evaluation document to examine your students progress while behind-the-wheel training. While the student is completing driving hours, they must be recorded in the Drive Time Log Sheet for this level. Print out the Instructions for entering information in the Drive Time Log Sheet.

Are you ready for your Section 4 test? After you have passed your test, you may move on to the next section. You may not continue until you have passed your test with a 70% or above. Good luck!

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